Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 27 (NIPS 2014)
Sebastian Tschiatschek, Rishabh K. Iyer, Haochen Wei, Jeff A. Bilmes
We address the problem of image collection summarization by learning mixtures of submodular functions. We argue that submodularity is very natural to this problem, and we show that a number of previously used scoring functions are submodular — a property not explicitly mentioned in these publications. We provide classes of submodular functions capturing the necessary properties of summaries, namely coverage, likelihood, and diversity. To learn mixtures of these submodular functions as scoring functions, we formulate summarization as a supervised learning problem using large-margin structured prediction. Furthermore, we introduce a novel evaluation metric, which we call V-ROUGE, for automatic summary scoring. While a similar metric called ROUGE has been successfully applied to document summarization , no such metric was known for quantifying the quality of image collection summaries. We provide a new dataset consisting of 14 real-world image collections along with many human-generated ground truth summaries collected using mechanical turk. We also extensively compare our method with previously explored methods for this problem and show that our learning approach outperforms all competitors on this new dataset. This paper provides, to our knowledge, the first systematic approach for quantifying the problem of image collection summarization, along with a new dataset of image collections and human summaries.