Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26 (NIPS 2013)
Zhenwen Dai, Georgios Exarchakis, Jörg Lücke
We study optimal image encoding based on a generative approach with non-linear feature combinations and explicit position encoding. By far most approaches to unsupervised learning learning of visual features, such as sparse coding or ICA, account for translations by representing the same features at different positions. Some earlier models used a separate encoding of features and their positions to facilitate invariant data encoding and recognition. All probabilistic generative models with explicit position encoding have so far assumed a linear superposition of components to encode image patches. Here, we for the first time apply a model with non-linear feature superposition and explicit position encoding. By avoiding linear superpositions, the studied model represents a closer match to component occlusions which are ubiquitous in natural images. In order to account for occlusions, the non-linear model encodes patches qualitatively very different from linear models by using component representations separated into mask and feature parameters. We first investigated encodings learned by the model using artificial data with mutually occluding components. We find that the model extracts the components, and that it can correctly identify the occlusive components with the hidden variables of the model. On natural image patches, the model learns component masks and features for typical image components. By using reverse correlation, we estimate the receptive fields associated with the model's hidden units. We find many Gabor-like or globular receptive fields as well as fields sensitive to more complex structures. Our results show that probabilistic models that capture occlusions and invariances can be trained efficiently on image patches, and that the resulting encoding represents an alternative model for the neural encoding of images in the primary visual cortex.