#### First-order Stochastic Algorithms for Escaping From Saddle Points in Almost Linear Time

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 31 (NeurIPS 2018)

#### Authors

*Yi Xu, Rong Jin, Tianbao Yang*

#### Abstract

(This is a theory paper) In this paper, we consider first-order methods for solving stochastic non-convex optimization problems. The key building block of the proposed algorithms is first-order procedures to extract negative curvature from the Hessian matrix through a principled sequence starting from noise, which are referred to {\it NEgative-curvature-Originated-from-Noise or NEON} and are of independent interest. Based on this building block, we design purely first-order stochastic algorithms for escaping from non-degenerate saddle points with a much better time complexity (almost linear time in the problem's dimensionality). In particular, we develop a general framework of {\it first-order stochastic algorithms} with a second-order convergence guarantee based on our new technique and existing algorithms that may only converge to a first-order stationary point. For finding a nearly {\it second-order stationary point} $\x$ such that $\|\nabla F(\x)\|\leq \epsilon$ and $\nabla^2 F(\x)\geq -\sqrt{\epsilon}I$ (in high probability), the best time complexity of the presented algorithms is $\widetilde O(d/\epsilon^{3.5})$, where $F(\cdot)$ denotes the objective function and $d$ is the dimensionality of the problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first theoretical result of first-order stochastic algorithms with an almost linear time in terms of problem's dimensionality for finding second-order stationary points, which is even competitive with existing stochastic algorithms hinging on the second-order information.