#### How to Hedge an Option Against an Adversary: Black-Scholes Pricing is Minimax Optimal

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26 (NIPS 2013)

#### Authors

*Jacob Abernethy, Peter L. Bartlett, Rafael Frongillo, Andre Wibisono*

#### Abstract

We consider a popular problem in finance, option pricing, through the lens of an online learning game between Nature and an Investor. In the Black-Scholes option pricing model from 1973, the Investor can continuously hedge the risk of an option by trading the underlying asset, assuming that the asset's price fluctuates according to Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM). We consider a worst-case model, in which Nature chooses a sequence of price fluctuations under a cumulative quadratic volatility constraint, and the Investor can make a sequence of hedging decisions. Our main result is to show that the value of our proposed game, which is the regret'' of hedging strategy, converges to the Black-Scholes option price. We use significantly weaker assumptions than previous work---for instance, we allow large jumps in the asset price---and show that the Black-Scholes hedging strategy is near-optimal for the Investor even in this non-stochastic framework."