Ping Li, Kenneth Church, Trevor Hastie
Conditional Random Sampling (CRS) was originally proposed for efficiently computing pairwise ($l_2$, $l_1$) distances, in static, large-scale, and sparse data sets such as text and Web data. It was previously presented using a heuristic argument. This study extends CRS to handle dynamic or streaming data, which much better reflect the real-world situation than assuming static data. Compared with other known sketching algorithms for dimension reductions such as stable random projections, CRS exhibits a significant advantage in that it is ``one-sketch-for-all.'' In particular, we demonstrate that CRS can be applied to efficiently compute the $l_p$ distance and the Hilbertian metrics, both are popular in machine learning. Although a fully rigorous analysis of CRS is difficult, we prove that, with a simple modification, CRS is rigorous at least for an important application of computing Hamming norms. A generic estimator and an approximate variance formula are provided and tested on various applications, for computing Hamming norms, Hamming distances, and $\chi^2$ distances.