Large Language Models Are Semi-Parametric Reinforcement Learning Agents

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Danyang Zhang, Lu Chen, Situo Zhang, Hongshen Xu, Zihan Zhao, Kai Yu


Inspired by the insights in cognitive science with respect to human memory and reasoning mechanism, a novel evolvable LLM-based (Large Language Model) agent framework is proposed as Rememberer. By equipping the LLM with a long-term experience memory, Rememberer is capable of exploiting the experiences from the past episodes even for different task goals, which excels an LLM-based agent with fixed exemplars or equipped with a transient working memory. We further introduce Reinforcement Learning with Experience Memory (RLEM) to update the memory. Thus, the whole system can learn from the experiences of both success and failure, and evolve its capability without fine-tuning the parameters of the LLM. In this way, the proposed Rememberer constitutes a semi-parametric RL agent. Extensive experiments are conducted on two RL task sets to evaluate the proposed framework. The average results with different initialization and training sets exceed the prior SOTA by 4% and 2% for the success rate on two task sets and demonstrate the superiority and robustness of Rememberer.