GEQ: Gaussian Kernel Inspired Equilibrium Models

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper


Mingjie Li, Yisen Wang, Zhouchen Lin


Despite the connection established by optimization-induced deep equilibrium models (OptEqs) between their output and the underlying hidden optimization problems, the performance of it along with its related works is still not good enough especially when compared to deep networks. One key factor responsible for this performance limitation is the use of linear kernels to extract features in these models. To address this issue, we propose a novel approach by replacing its linear kernel with a new function that can readily capture nonlinear feature dependencies in the input data. Drawing inspiration from classical machine learning algorithms, we introduce Gaussian kernels as the alternative function and then propose our new equilibrium model, which we refer to as GEQ. By leveraging Gaussian kernels, GEQ can effectively extract the nonlinear information embedded within the input features, surpassing the performance of the original OptEqs. Moreover, GEQ can be perceived as a weight-tied neural network with infinite width and depth. GEQ also enjoys better theoretical properties and improved overall performance. Additionally, our GEQ exhibits enhanced stability when confronted with various samples. We further substantiate the effectiveness and stability of GEQ through a series of comprehensive experiments.