Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

*Farzad Pourkamali, Nicolas Macris*

We consider a statistical model for matrix factorization in a regime where the rank of the two hidden matrix factors grows linearly with their dimension and their product is corrupted by additive noise. Despite various approaches, statistical and algorithmic limits of such problems have remained elusive. We study a Bayesian setting with the assumptions that (a) one of the matrix factors is symmetric, (b) both factors as well as the additive noise have rotational invariant priors, (c) the priors are known to the statistician. We derive analytical formulas for Rotation Invariant Estimators to reconstruct the two matrix factors, and conjecture that these are optimal in the large-dimension limit, in the sense that they minimize the average mean-square-error. We provide numerical checks which confirm the optimality conjecture when confronted to Oracle Estimators which are optimal by definition, but involve the ground-truth. Our derivation relies on a combination of tools, namely random matrix theory transforms, spherical integral formulas, and the replica method from statistical mechanics.

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