Exact Representation of Sparse Networks with Symmetric Nonnegative Embeddings

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Sudhanshu Chanpuriya, Ryan Rossi, Anup B. Rao, Tung Mai, Nedim Lipka, Zhao Song, Cameron Musco


Graph models based on factorization of the adjacency matrix often fail to capture network structures related to links between dissimilar nodes (heterophily). We introduce a novel graph factorization model that leverages two nonnegative vectors per node to interpretably account for links between both similar and dissimilar nodes. We prove that our model can exactly represent any graph with low arboricity, a property that many real-world networks satisfy; our proof also applies to related models but has much greater scope than the closest prior bound, which is based on low max degree. Our factorization also has compelling properties besides expressiveness: due to its symmetric structure and nonnegativity, fitting the model inherently finds node communities, and the model's link predictions can be interpreted in terms of these communities. In experiments on real-world networks, we demonstrate our factorization's effectiveness on a variety of tasks, including community detection and link prediction.