PUCA: Patch-Unshuffle and Channel Attention for Enhanced Self-Supervised Image Denoising

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Hyemi Jang, Junsung Park, Dahuin Jung, Jaihyun Lew, Ho Bae, Sungroh Yoon


Although supervised image denoising networks have shown remarkable performance on synthesized noisy images, they often fail in practice due to the difference between real and synthesized noise. Since clean-noisy image pairs from the real world are extremely costly to gather, self-supervised learning, which utilizes noisy input itself as a target, has been studied. To prevent a self-supervised denoising model from learning identical mapping, each output pixel should not be influenced by its corresponding input pixel; This requirement is known as J-invariance. Blind-spot networks (BSNs) have been a prevalent choice to ensure J-invariance in self-supervised image denoising. However, constructing variations of BSNs by injecting additional operations such as downsampling can expose blinded information, thereby violating J-invariance. Consequently, convolutions designed specifically for BSNs have been allowed only, limiting architectural flexibility. To overcome this limitation, we propose PUCA, a novel J-invariant U-Net architecture, for self-supervised denoising. PUCA leverages patch-unshuffle/shuffle to dramatically expand receptive fields while maintaining J-invariance and dilated attention blocks (DABs) for global context incorporation. Experimental results demonstrate that PUCA achieves state-of-the-art performance, outperforming existing methods in self-supervised image denoising.