Alleviating the Semantic Gap for Generalized fMRI-to-Image Reconstruction

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Tao Fang, Qian Zheng, Gang Pan


Although existing fMRI-to-image reconstruction methods could predict high-quality images, they do not explicitly consider the semantic gap between training and testing data, resulting in reconstruction with unstable and uncertain semantics. This paper addresses the problem of generalized fMRI-to-image reconstruction by explicitly alleviates the semantic gap. Specifically, we leverage the pre-trained CLIP model to map the training data to a compact feature representation, which essentially extends the sparse semantics of training data to dense ones, thus alleviating the semantic gap of the instances nearby known concepts (i.e., inside the training super-classes). Inspired by the robust low-level representation in fMRI data, which could help alleviate the semantic gap for instances that far from the known concepts (i.e., outside the training super-classes), we leverage structural information as a general cue to guide image reconstruction. Further, we quantify the semantic uncertainty based on probability density estimation and achieve Generalized fMRI-to-image reconstruction by adaptively integrating Expanded Semantics and Structural information (GESS) within a diffusion process. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed GESS model outperforms state-of-the-art methods, and we propose a generalized scenario split strategy to evaluate the advantage of GESS in closing the semantic gap.