FouriDown: Factoring Down-Sampling into Shuffling and Superposing

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper


Qi Zhu, man zhou, Jie Huang, Naishan Zheng, Hongzhi Gao, Chongyi Li, Yuan Xu, Feng Zhao


Spatial down-sampling techniques, such as strided convolution, Gaussian, and Nearest down-sampling, are essential in deep neural networks. In this study, we revisit the working mechanism of the spatial down-sampling family and analyze the biased effects caused by the static weighting strategy employed in previous approaches. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel down-sampling paradigm in the Fourier domain, abbreviated as FouriDown, which unifies existing down-sampling techniques. Drawing inspiration from the signal sampling theorem, we parameterize the non-parameter static weighting down-sampling operator as a learnable and context-adaptive operator within a unified Fourier function. Specifically, we organize the corresponding frequency positions of the 2D plane in a physically-closed manner within a single channel dimension. We then perform point-wise channel shuffling based on an indicator that determines whether a channel's signal frequency bin is susceptible to aliasing, ensuring the consistency of the weighting parameter learning. FouriDown, as a generic operator, comprises four key components: 2D discrete Fourier transform, context shuffling rules, Fourier weighting-adaptively superposing rules, and 2D inverse Fourier transform. These components can be easily integrated into existing image restoration networks. To demonstrate the efficacy of FouriDown, we conduct extensive experiments on image de-blurring and low-light image enhancement. The results consistently show that FouriDown can provide significant performance improvements. We will make the code publicly available to facilitate further exploration and application of FouriDown.