NICE: NoIse-modulated Consistency rEgularization for Data-Efficient GANs

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Yao Ni, Piotr Koniusz


Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are powerful tools for image synthesis. However, they require access to vast amounts of training data, which is often costly and prohibitive. Limited data affects GANs, leading to discriminator overfitting and training instability. In this paper, we present a novel approach called NoIse-modulated Consistency rEgularization (NICE) to overcome these challenges. To this end, we introduce an adaptive multiplicative noise into the discriminator to modulate its latent features. We demonstrate the effectiveness of such a modulation in preventing discriminator overfitting by adaptively reducing the Rademacher complexity of the discriminator. However, this modulation leads to an unintended consequence of increased gradient norm, which can undermine the stability of GAN training. To mitigate this undesirable effect, we impose a constraint on the discriminator, ensuring its consistency for the same inputs under different noise modulations. The constraint effectively penalizes the first and second-order gradients of latent features, enhancing GAN stability. Experimental evidence aligns with our theoretical analysis, demonstrating the reduction of generalization error and gradient penalization of NICE. This substantiates the efficacy of NICE in reducing discriminator overfitting and improving stability of GAN training. NICE achieves state-of-the-art results on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, ImageNet and FFHQ datasets when trained with limited data, as well as in low-shot generation tasks.