Predicting Global Label Relationship Matrix for Graph Neural Networks under Heterophily

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Langzhang Liang, Xiangjing Hu, Zenglin Xu, Zixing Song, Irwin King


Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have been shown to achieve remarkable performance on node classification tasks by exploiting both graph structures and node features. The majority of existing GNNs rely on the implicit homophily assumption. Recent studies have demonstrated that GNNs may struggle to model heterophilous graphs where nodes with different labels are more likely connected. To address this issue, we propose a generic GNN applicable to both homophilous and heterophilous graphs, namely Low-Rank Graph Neural Network (LRGNN). Our analysis demonstrates that a signed graph's global label relationship matrix has a low rank. This insight inspires us to predict the label relationship matrix by solving a robust low-rank matrix approximation problem, as prior research has proven that low-rank approximation could achieve perfect recovery under certain conditions. The experimental results reveal that the solution bears a strong resemblance to the label relationship matrix, presenting two advantages for graph modeling: a block diagonal structure and varying distributions of within-class and between-class entries.