Multimodal C4: An Open, Billion-scale Corpus of Images Interleaved with Text

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Datasets and Benchmarks Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Wanrong Zhu, Jack Hessel, Anas Awadalla, Samir Yitzhak Gadre, Jesse Dodge, Alex Fang, Youngjae Yu, Ludwig Schmidt, William Yang Wang, Yejin Choi


In-context vision and language models like Flamingo support arbitrarily interleaved sequences of images and text as input.This format not only enables few-shot learning via interleaving independent supervised (image, text) examples, but also, more complex prompts involving interaction between images, e.g., ``What do image A and image B have in common?''To support this interface, pretraining occurs over web corpora that similarly contain interleaved images+text.To date, however, large-scale data of this form have not been publicly available.We release Multimodal C4, an augmentation of the popular text-only C4 corpus with images interleaved.We use a linear assignment algorithm to place images into longer bodies of text using CLIP features, a process that we show outperforms alternatives.Multimodal C4 spans everyday topics like cooking, travel, technology, etc. A manual inspection of a random sample of documents shows that a vast majority (88\%) of images are topically relevant, and that linear assignment frequently selects individual sentences specifically well-aligned with each image (80\%). After filtering NSFW images, ads, etc., the resulting corpus consists of 101.2M documents with 571M images interleaved in 43B English tokens.