When Visual Prompt Tuning Meets Source-Free Domain Adaptive Semantic Segmentation

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Xinhong Ma, Yiming Wang, Hao Liu, Tianyu Guo, Yunhe Wang


Source-free domain adaptive semantic segmentation aims to adapt a pre-trained source model to the unlabeled target domain without accessing the private source data. Previous methods usually fine-tune the entire network, which suffers from expensive parameter tuning. To avoid this problem, we propose to utilize visual prompt tuning for parameter-efficient adaptation. However, the existing visual prompt tuning methods are unsuitable for source-free domain adaptive semantic segmentation due to the following two reasons: (1) Commonly used visual prompts like input tokens or pixel-level perturbations cannot reliably learn informative knowledge beneficial for semantic segmentation. (2) Visual prompts require sufficient labeled data to fill the gap between the pre-trained model and downstream tasks. To alleviate these problems, we propose a universal unsupervised visual prompt tuning (Uni-UVPT) framework, which is applicable to various transformer-based backbones. Specifically, we first divide the source pre-trained backbone with frozen parameters into multiple stages, and propose a lightweight prompt adapter for progressively encoding informative knowledge into prompts and enhancing the generalization of target features between adjacent backbone stages. Cooperatively, a novel adaptive pseudo-label correction strategy with a multiscale consistency loss is designed to alleviate the negative effect of target samples with noisy pseudo labels and raise the capacity of visual prompts to spatial perturbations. Extensive experiments demonstrate that Uni-UVPT achieves state-of-the-art performance on GTA5 $\to$ Cityscapes and SYNTHIA $\to$ Cityscapes tasks and can serve as a universal and parameter-efficient framework for large-model unsupervised knowledge transfer. Code will be available at https://gitee.com/mindspore/models/tree/master/research/cv/uni-uvpt and https://github.com/huawei-noah/noah-research/tree/master/uni-uvpt.