UP-DP: Unsupervised Prompt Learning for Data Pre-Selection with Vision-Language Models

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Xin Li, Sima Behpour, Thang Long Doan, Wenbin He, Liang Gou, Liu Ren


In this study, we investigate the task of data pre-selection, which aims to select instances for labeling from an unlabeled dataset through a single pass, thereby optimizing performance for undefined downstream tasks with a limited annotation budget. Previous approaches to data pre-selection relied solely on visual features extracted from foundation models, such as CLIP and BLIP-2, but largely ignored the powerfulness of text features. In this work, we argue that, with proper design, the joint feature space of both vision and text can yield a better representation for data pre-selection. To this end, we introduce UP-DP, a simple yet effective unsupervised prompt learning approach that adapts vision-language models, like BLIP-2, for data pre-selection. Specifically, with the BLIP-2 parameters frozen, we train text prompts to extract the joint features with improved representation, ensuring a diverse cluster structure that covers the entire dataset. We extensively compare our method with the state-of-the-art using seven benchmark datasets in different settings, achieving up to a performance gain of 20\%. Interestingly, the prompts learned from one dataset demonstrate significant generalizability and can be applied directly to enhance the feature extraction of BLIP-2 from other datasets. To the best of our knowledge, UP-DP is the first work to incorporate unsupervised prompt learning in a vision-language model for data pre-selection.