$\mathcal{M}^4$: A Unified XAI Benchmark for Faithfulness Evaluation of Feature Attribution Methods across Metrics, Modalities and Models

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Datasets and Benchmarks Track

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Xuhong Li, Mengnan Du, Jiamin Chen, Yekun Chai, Himabindu Lakkaraju, Haoyi Xiong


While Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) techniques have been widely studied to explain predictions made by deep neural networks, the way to evaluate the faithfulness of explanation results remains challenging, due to the heterogeneity of explanations for various models and the lack of ground-truth explanations. This paper introduces an XAI benchmark named $\mathcal{M}^4$, which allows evaluating various input feature attribution methods using the same set of faithfulness metrics across multiple data modalities (images and texts) and network structures (ResNets, MobileNets, Transformers). A taxonomy for the metrics has been proposed as well. We first categorize commonly used XAI evaluation metrics into three groups based on the ground truth they require. We then implement classic and state-of-the-art feature attribution methods using InterpretDL and conduct extensive experiments to compare methods and gain insights. Extensive experiments have been conducted to provide holistic evaluations as benchmark baselines. Several interesting observations are noticed for designing attribution algorithms. The implementation of state-of-the-art explanation methods and evaluation metrics of $\mathcal{M}^4$ is publicly available at \url{https://github.com/PaddlePaddle/InterpretDL}.