Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 35 (NeurIPS 2022) Main Conference Track
Bo Xiong, Shichao Zhu, Nico Potyka, Shirui Pan, Chuan Zhou, Steffen Staab
Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) are powerful frameworks for learning embeddings of graph-structured data. GCNs are traditionally studied through the lens of Euclidean geometry. Recent works find that non-Euclidean Riemannian manifolds provide specific inductive biases for embedding hierarchical or spherical data. However, they cannot align well with data of mixed graph topologies. We consider a larger class of pseudo-Riemannian manifolds that generalize hyperboloid and sphere. We develop new geodesic tools that allow for extending neural network operations into geodesically disconnected pseudo-Riemannian manifolds. As a consequence, we derive a pseudo-Riemannian GCN that models data in pseudo-Riemannian manifolds of constant nonzero curvature in the context of graph neural networks. Our method provides a geometric inductive bias that is sufficiently flexible to model mixed heterogeneous topologies like hierarchical graphs with cycles. We demonstrate the representational capabilities of this method by applying it to the tasks of graph reconstruction, node classification, and link prediction on a series of standard graphs with mixed topologies. Empirical results demonstrate that our method outperforms Riemannian counterparts when embedding graphs of complex topologies.