Open Rule Induction

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 34 (NeurIPS 2021)

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Wanyun Cui, Xingran Chen


Rules have a number of desirable properties. It is easy to understand, infer new knowledge, and communicate with other inference systems. One weakness of the previous rule induction systems is that they only find rules within a knowledge base (KB) and therefore cannot generalize to more open and complex real-world rules. Recently, the language model (LM)-based rule generation are proposed to enhance the expressive power of the rules.In this paper, we revisit the differences between KB-based rule induction and LM-based rule generation. We argue that, while KB-based methods inducted rules by discovering data commonalitiess, the current LM-based methods are learning rules from rules''. This limits these methods to only producecanned'' rules whose patterns are constrained by the annotated rules, while discarding the rich expressive power of LMs for free text.Therefore, in this paper, we propose the open rule induction problem, which aims to induce open rules utilizing the knowledge in LMs. Besides, we propose the Orion (\underline{o}pen \underline{r}ule \underline{i}nducti\underline{on}) system to automatically mine open rules from LMs without supervision of annotated rules. We conducted extensive experiments to verify the quality and quantity of the inducted open rules. Surprisingly, when applying the open rules in downstream tasks (i.e. relation extraction), these automatically inducted rules even outperformed the manually annotated rules.