Yiyue Qian, Yiming Zhang, Yanfang (Fa Ye, Chuxu Zhang
Driven by the considerable profits, the crime of drug trafficking (a.k.a. illicit drug trading) has co-evolved with modern technologies, e.g., social media such as Instagram has become a popular platform for marketing and selling illicit drugs. The activities of online drug trafficking are nimble and resilient, which call for novel techniques to effectively detect, disrupt, and dismantle illicit drug trades. In this paper, we propose a holistic framework named MetaHG to automatically detect illicit drug traffickers on social media (i.e., Instagram), by tackling the following two new challenges: (1) different from existing works which merely focus on analyzing post content, MetaHG is capable of jointly modeling multi-modal content and relational structured information on social media for illicit drug trafficker detection; (2) in addition, through the proposed meta-learning technique, MetaHG addresses the issue of requiring sufficient data for model training. More specifically, in our proposed MetaHG, we first build a heterogeneous graph (HG) to comprehensively characterize the complex ecosystem of drug trafficking on social media. Then, we employ a relation-based graph convolutional neural network to learn node (i.e., user) representations over the built HG, in which we introduce graph structure refinement to compensate the sparse connection among entities in the HG for more robust node representation learning. Afterwards, we propose a meta-learning algorithm for model optimization. A self-supervised module and a knowledge distillation module are further designed to exploit unlabeled data for improving the model. Extensive experiments based on the real-world data collected from Instagram demonstrate that the proposed MetaHG outperforms state-of-the-art methods.