Representer Point Selection via Local Jacobian Expansion for Post-hoc Classifier Explanation of Deep Neural Networks and Ensemble Models

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 34 (NeurIPS 2021)

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Yi Sui, Ga Wu, Scott Sanner


Explaining the influence of training data on deep neural network predictions is a critical tool for debugging models through data curation. A recent tractable and appealing approach for this task was provided via the concept of Representer Point Selection (RPS), i.e. a method the leverages the dual form of $l_2$ regularized optimization in the last layer of the neural network to identify the contribution of training points to the prediction. However, two key drawbacks of RPS are that they (i) lead to disagreement between the originally trained network and the RP regularized network modification and (ii) often yield a static ranking of training data for the same class, independent of the data being classified. Inspired by the RPS approach, we propose an alternative method based on a local Jacobian Taylor expansion (LJE) of the Jacobian.We empirically compared RPS-LJE with the original RPS-$l_2$ on image classification (with ResNet), text classification recurrent neural networks (with Bi-LSTM), and tabular classification (with XGBoost) tasks.Quantitatively, we show that RPS-LJE slightly outperforms RPS-$l_2$ and other state-of-the-art data explanation methods by up to 3\% on a data debugging task. Qualitatively, we observe that RPS-LJE provides individualized explanations for each test data point rather than the class-specific static ranking of points in the original approach. Overall, RPS-LJE represents a novel approach to RPS that provides a powerful tool for data-oriented explanation and debugging.