Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 27 (NIPS 2014)
Sahar Akram, Jonathan Z. Simon, Shihab A. Shamma, Behtash Babadi
Humans are able to segregate auditory objects in a complex acoustic scene, through an interplay of bottom-up feature extraction and top-down selective attention in the brain. The detailed mechanism underlying this process is largely unknown and the ability to mimic this procedure is an important problem in artificial intelligence and computational neuroscience. We consider the problem of decoding the attentional state of a listener in a competing-speaker environment from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from the human brain. We develop a behaviorally inspired state-space model to account for the modulation of the MEG with respect to attentional state of the listener. We construct a decoder based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the state parameters via the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The resulting decoder is able to track the attentional modulation of the listener with multi-second resolution using only the envelopes of the two speech streams as covariates. We present simulation studies as well as application to real MEG data from two human subjects. Our results reveal that the proposed decoder provides substantial gains in terms of temporal resolution, complexity, and decoding accuracy.