Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 25 (NIPS 2012)
Ren Xiaofeng, Liefeng Bo
Finding contours in natural images is a fundamental problem that serves as the basis of many tasks such as image segmentation and object recognition. At the core of contour detection technologies are a set of hand-designed gradient features, used by most existing approaches including the state-of-the-art Global Pb (gPb) operator. In this work, we show that contour detection accuracy can be significantly improved by computing Sparse Code Gradients (SCG), which measure contrast using patch representations automatically learned through sparse coding. We use K-SVD and Orthogonal Matching Pursuit for efficient dictionary learning and encoding, and use multi-scale pooling and power transforms to code oriented local neighborhoods before computing gradients and applying linear SVM. By extracting rich representations from pixels and avoiding collapsing them prematurely, Sparse Code Gradients effectively learn how to measure local contrasts and find contours. We improve the F-measure metric on the BSDS500 benchmark to 0.74 (up from 0.71 of gPb contours). Moreover, our learning approach can easily adapt to novel sensor data such as Kinect-style RGB-D cameras: Sparse Code Gradients on depth images and surface normals lead to promising contour detection using depth and depth+color, as verified on the NYU Depth Dataset. Our work combines the concept of oriented gradients with sparse representation and opens up future possibilities for learning contour detection and segmentation.