Julien Roy, Paul Barde, Félix Harvey, Derek Nowrouzezahrai, Chris Pal
In multi-agent reinforcement learning, discovering successful collective behaviors is challenging as it requires exploring a joint action space that grows exponentially with the number of agents. While the tractability of independent agent-wise exploration is appealing, this approach fails on tasks that require elaborate group strategies. We argue that coordinating the agents' policies can guide their exploration and we investigate techniques to promote such an inductive bias. We propose two policy regularization methods: TeamReg, which is based on inter-agent action predictability and CoachReg that relies on synchronized behavior selection. We evaluate each approach on four challenging continuous control tasks with sparse rewards that require varying levels of coordination as well as on the discrete action Google Research Football environment. Our experiments show improved performance across many cooperative multi-agent problems. Finally, we analyze the effects of our proposed methods on the policies that our agents learn and show that our methods successfully enforce the qualities that we propose as proxies for coordinated behaviors.