Charles Margossian, Aki Vehtari, Daniel Simpson, Raj Agrawal
Gaussian latent variable models are a key class of Bayesian hierarchical models with applications in many fields. Performing Bayesian inference on such models can be challenging as Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms struggle with the geometry of the resulting posterior distribution and can be prohibitively slow. An alternative is to use a Laplace approximation to marginalize out the latent Gaussian variables and then integrate out the remaining hyperparameters using dynamic Hamiltonian Monte Carlo, a gradient-based Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler. To implement this scheme efficiently, we derive a novel adjoint method that propagates the minimal information needed to construct the gradient of the approximate marginal likelihood. This strategy yields a scalable differentiation method that is orders of magnitude faster than state of the art differentiation techniques when the hyperparameters are high dimensional. We prototype the method in the probabilistic programming framework Stan and test the utility of the embedded Laplace approximation on several models, including one where the dimension of the hyperparameter is ∼6,000. Depending on the cases, the benefits can include an alleviation of the geometric pathologies that frustrate Hamiltonian Monte Carlo and a dramatic speed-up.