Black-Box Certification with Randomized Smoothing: A Functional Optimization Based Framework

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 33 (NeurIPS 2020)

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Dinghuai Zhang, Mao Ye, Chengyue Gong, Zhanxing Zhu, Qiang Liu


Randomized classifiers have been shown to provide a promising approach for achieving certified robustness against adversarial attacks in deep learning. However, most existing methods only leverage Gaussian smoothing noise and only work for $\ell_2$ perturbation. We propose a general framework of adversarial certification with non-Gaussian noise and for more general types of attacks, from a unified \functional optimization perspective. Our new framework allows us to identify a key trade-off between accuracy and robustness via designing smoothing distributions, helping to design new families of non-Gaussian smoothing distributions that work more efficiently for different $\ell_p$ settings, including $\ell_1$, $\ell_2$ and $\ell_\infty$ attacks. Our proposed methods achieve better certification results than previous works and provide a new perspective on randomized smoothing certification.