Andrea Celli, Alberto Marchesi, Tommaso Bianchi, Nicola Gatti
In the context of multi-player, general-sum games, there is a growing interest in solution concepts involving some form of communication among players, since they can lead to socially better outcomes with respect to Nash equilibria and may be reached through learning dynamics in a decentralized fashion. In this paper, we focus on coarse correlated equilibria (CCEs) in sequential games. First, we complete the picture on the complexity of finding social-welfare-maximizing CCEs by proving that the problem is not in Poly-APX, unless P = NP, in games with three or more players (including chance). Then, we provide simple arguments showing that CFR---working with behavioral strategies---may not converge to a CCE in multi-player, general-sum sequential games. In order to amend this issue, we devise two variants of CFR that provably converge to a CCE. The first one (CFR-S) is a simple stochastic adaptation of CFR which employs sampling to build a correlated strategy, whereas the second variant (called CFR-Jr) enhances CFR with a more involved reconstruction procedure to recover correlated strategies from behavioral ones. Experiments on a rich testbed of multi-player, general-sum sequential games show that both CFR-S and CFR-Jr are dramatically faster than the state-of-the-art algorithms to compute CCEs, with CFR-Jr being also a good heuristic to find socially-optimal CCEs.