HitNet: Hybrid Ternary Recurrent Neural Network

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 31 (NeurIPS 2018)

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Peiqi Wang, Xinfeng Xie, Lei Deng, Guoqi Li, Dongsheng Wang, Yuan Xie


Quantization is a promising technique to reduce the model size, memory footprint, and massive computation operations of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) for embedded devices with limited resources. Although extreme low-bit quantization has achieved impressive success on convolutional neural networks, it still suffers from huge accuracy degradation on RNNs with the same low-bit precision. In this paper, we first investigate the accuracy degradation on RNN models under different quantization schemes, and the distribution of tensor values in the full precision model. Our observation reveals that due to the difference between the distributions of weights and activations, different quantization methods are suitable for different parts of models. Based on our observation, we propose HitNet, a hybrid ternary recurrent neural network, which bridges the accuracy gap between the full precision model and the quantized model. In HitNet, we develop a hybrid quantization method to quantize weights and activations. Moreover, we introduce a sloping factor motivated by prior work on Boltzmann machine to activation functions, further closing the accuracy gap between the full precision model and the quantized model. Overall, our HitNet can quantize RNN models into ternary values, {-1, 0, 1}, outperforming the state-of-the-art quantization methods on RNN models significantly. We test it on typical RNN models, such as Long-Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Gated Recurrent Units (GRU), on which the results outperform previous work significantly. For example, we improve the perplexity per word (PPW) of a ternary LSTM on Penn Tree Bank (PTB) corpus from 126 (the state-of-the-art result to the best of our knowledge) to 110.3 with a full precision model in 97.2, and a ternary GRU from 142 to 113.5 with a full precision model in 102.7.