Morteza Mardani, Qingyun Sun, David Donoho, Vardan Papyan, Hatef Monajemi, Shreyas Vasanawala, John Pauly
Recovering high-resolution images from limited sensory data typically leads to a serious ill-posed inverse problem, demanding inversion algorithms that effectively capture the prior information. Learning a good inverse mapping from training data faces severe challenges, including: (i) scarcity of training data; (ii) need for plausible reconstructions that are physically feasible; (iii) need for fast reconstruction, especially in real-time applications. We develop a successful system solving all these challenges, using as basic architecture the repetitive application of alternating proximal and data fidelity constraints. We learn a proximal map that works well with real images based on residual networks with recurrent blocks. Extensive experiments are carried out under different settings: (a) reconstructing abdominal MRI of pediatric patients from highly undersampled k-space data and (b) super-resolving natural face images. Our key findings include: 1. a recurrent ResNet with a single residual block (10-fold repetition) yields an effective proximal which accurately reveals MR image details. 2. Our architecture significantly outperforms conventional non-recurrent deep ResNets by 2dB SNR; it is also trained much more rapidly. 3. It outperforms state-of-the-art compressed-sensing Wavelet-based methods by 4dB SNR, with 100x speedups in reconstruction time.