Ehsan Hajiramezanali, Siamak Zamani Dadaneh, Alireza Karbalayghareh, Mingyuan Zhou, Xiaoning Qian
Precision medicine aims for personalized prognosis and therapeutics by utilizing recent genome-scale high-throughput profiling techniques, including next-generation sequencing (NGS). However, translating NGS data faces several challenges. First, NGS count data are often overdispersed, requiring appropriate modeling. Second, compared to the number of involved molecules and system complexity, the number of available samples for studying complex disease, such as cancer, is often limited, especially considering disease heterogeneity. The key question is whether we may integrate available data from all different sources or domains to achieve reproducible disease prognosis based on NGS count data. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian Multi-Domain Learning (BMDL) model that derives domain-dependent latent representations of overdispersed count data based on hierarchical negative binomial factorization for accurate cancer subtyping even if the number of samples for a specific cancer type is small. Experimental results from both our simulated and NGS datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) demonstrate the promising potential of BMDL for effective multi-domain learning without ``negative transfer'' effects often seen in existing multi-task learning and transfer learning methods.