Structured Transforms for Small-Footprint Deep Learning

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 28 (NIPS 2015)

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Vikas Sindhwani, Tara Sainath, Sanjiv Kumar


We consider the task of building compact deep learning pipelines suitable for deploymenton storage and power constrained mobile devices. We propose a uni-fied framework to learn a broad family of structured parameter matrices that arecharacterized by the notion of low displacement rank. Our structured transformsadmit fast function and gradient evaluation, and span a rich range of parametersharing configurations whose statistical modeling capacity can be explicitly tunedalong a continuum from structured to unstructured. Experimental results showthat these transforms can significantly accelerate inference and forward/backwardpasses during training, and offer superior accuracy-compactness-speed tradeoffsin comparison to a number of existing techniques. In keyword spotting applicationsin mobile speech recognition, our methods are much more effective thanstandard linear low-rank bottleneck layers and nearly retain the performance ofstate of the art models, while providing more than 3.5-fold compression.