Mijung Park, Greg Horwitz, Jonathan Pillow
A sizable literature has focused on the problem of estimating a low-dimensional feature space capturing a neuron's stimulus sensitivity. However, comparatively little work has addressed the problem of estimating the nonlinear function from feature space to a neuron's output spike rate. Here, we use a Gaussian process (GP) prior over the infinite-dimensional space of nonlinear functions to obtain Bayesian estimates of the "nonlinearity" in the linear-nonlinear-Poisson (LNP) encoding model. This offers flexibility, robustness, and computational tractability compared to traditional methods (e.g., parametric forms, histograms, cubic splines). Most importantly, we develop a framework for optimal experimental design based on uncertainty sampling. This involves adaptively selecting stimuli to characterize the nonlinearity with as little experimental data as possible, and relies on a method for rapidly updating hyperparameters using the Laplace approximation. We apply these methods to data from color-tuned neurons in macaque V1. We estimate nonlinearities in the 3D space of cone contrasts, which reveal that V1 combines cone inputs in a highly nonlinear manner. With simulated experiments, we show that optimal design substantially reduces the amount of data required to estimate this nonlinear combination rule.