Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 22 (NIPS 2009)
Vinod Nair, Geoffrey E. Hinton
We introduce a new type of Deep Belief Net and evaluate it on a 3D object recognition task. The top-level model is a third-order Boltzmann machine, trained using a hybrid algorithm that combines both generative and discriminative gradients. Performance is evaluated on the NORB database(normalized-uniform version), which contains stereo-pair images of objects under different lighting conditions and viewpoints. Our model achieves 6.5% error on the test set, which is close to the best published result for NORB (5.9%) using a convolutional neural net that has built-in knowledge of translation invariance. It substantially outperforms shallow models such as SVMs (11.6%). DBNs are especially suited for semi-supervised learning, and to demonstrate this we consider a modified version of the NORB recognition task in which additional unlabeled images are created by applying small translations to the images in the database. With the extra unlabeled data (and the same amount of labeled data as before), our model achieves 5.2% error, making it the current best result for NORB.