Doug Downey, Oren Etzioni
Is accurate classification possible in the absence of hand-labeled data? This paper introduces the Monotonic Feature (MF) abstraction--where the probability of class membership increases monotonically with the MF's value. The paper proves that when an MF is given, PAC learning is possible with no hand-labeled data under certain assumptions. We argue that MFs arise naturally in a broad range of textual classification applications. On the classic "20 Newsgroups" data set, a learner given an MF and unlabeled data achieves classification accuracy equal to that of a state-of-the-art semi-supervised learner relying on 160 hand-labeled examples. Even when MFs are not given as input, their presence or absence can be determined from a small amount of hand-labeled data, which yields a new semi-supervised learning method that reduces error by 15% on the 20 Newsgroups data.