Kai-Yeung Siu, Vwani Roychowdhury
An artificial neural network (ANN) is commonly modeled by a threshold circuit, a network of interconnected processing units called linear threshold gates. The depth of a network represents the number of unit delays or the time for parallel computation. The SIze of a circuit is the number of gates and measures the amount of hardware . It was known that traditional logic circuits consisting of only unbounded fan-in AND, OR, NOT gates would require at least O(log n/log log n) depth to compute common arithmetic functions such as the product or the quotient of two n-bit numbers, unless we allow the size (and fan-in) to increase exponentially (in n). We show in this paper that ANNs can be much more powerful than traditional logic circuits. In particular, we prove that that iterated addition can be com(cid:173) puted by depth-2 ANN, and multiplication and division can be computed by depth-3 ANNs with polynomial size and polynomially bounded integer weights, respectively. Moreover, it follows from known lower bound re(cid:173) sults that these ANNs are optimal in depth. We also indicate that these techniques can be applied to construct polynomial-size depth-3 ANN for powering, and depth-4 ANN for mUltiple product.