Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 2 (NIPS 1989)
A comparison of algorithms that minimize error functions to train the trajectories of recurrent networks, reveals how complexity is traded off for causality. These algorithms are also related to time-independent fonnalisms. It is suggested that causal and scalable algorithms are possible when the activation dynamics of adaptive neurons is fast compared to the behavior to be learned. Standard continuous-time recurrent backpropagation is used in an example.